The New Dutch Republic

The Netherlands grew to become a Spanish possession beginning in 1556 when its crown passed to the international king Philip II of Spain.

William the Silent (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584) was the Father of the Dutch Republic.

He was the most important leader of the Dutch Revolt which observed The Netherlands arise as a state all through the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648), declaring their independence from the Spanish Empire in 1581.

The new Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1588.

The Dutch Republic achieved world electricity in the 17th-century and became a leading electrical power in European trade, science, and art.

The Dutch East India Enterprise (United East India Enterprise), was a megacorporation which prospered via most of the 17th-century as element of the potent Dutch, industrial empire in the East Indies (existing-day Indonesia).

It was dissolved in 1799.

Capitalism was the financial and political process which prompted trade to broaden, attracted immigrants and stimulated the development of the main metropolitan areas and ports.

Heritage of Dutch Painting

The Dutch Golden Age from about 1620 to 1680 formulated a very distinct model of painting depicting the organic earth that favored landscapes these types of as the dunes alongside the western sea coast and rivers with bordering meadows in which cattle grazed, generally with a eyesight of a metropolis in the distance.

They depicted everyday lifetime with Dutch proverbs and sayings that conveyed a moralistic concept.

Between 1605 and 1635 above 100,000 paintings by painters like Frans Hals and Jacob van Ruisdael, Lieven de Important and Jan Steen were being developed in Haarlem, cash of the province of North Holland with paintings depicting the city’s superb background and products and solutions.

Several portrait paintings ended up also commissioned by rich folks for the duration of the 17th-century.

Dutch words “stilleven” and “landschap” which ended up adopted into English as “still existence” and “landscape” upon which artwork in Europe depended for the following two hundreds of years.

The Golden Age never ever truly recovered from the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78) producing the republic to collapse in 1795 and its colonial empire was eclipsed by England.

Significant Masters of the Golden Age

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669)

Rembrandt is regarded a single of the biggest artists in the history of Baroque-design painting.

He was a prolific master in a few media – draughtsman, painter, and printmaker who also taught quite a few essential Dutch painters.

His subject matter subject was broad ranging from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historic scenes, and Biblical and mythological themes as well as animal research.

Famed Paintings by Rembrandt

*The Night Observe (1642)

The Night Enjoy is famed for a few points: its colossal sizing (363 cm × 437 cm (11.91 ft × 14.34 ft)), the remarkable use of light and shadow (tenebrism) and the perception of movement in what would have ordinarily been a static army group portrait.

*The Jewish Bride (1665)

The Jewish Bride, depicted as Isaac and Rebecca, the sitters have been emphasizing their fidelity and piety and that their marriage was a content and virtuous one particular.

*The Storm on the Sea of Galilee (1633)

An oil-on-canvas portray depicting the Biblical Tale of Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee.

It is Rembrandt’s only seascape.

*Head of Christ (1648)

The Head of Christ is a 1648 painting now in the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin.

*Bathsheba at Her Tub (1654)

The painting hangs in The Louvre depicting King David observing Bathsheba bathing from the Outdated Testament.

Johannes Vermeer (1632 – 1675)

Dutch Golden-Age artist,Johannes Vermeer was a Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic inside scenes of center-class everyday living and his masterly use of mild in his do the job.

“Practically all his paintings,” Hans Koningsberger wrote, “are apparently set in two smallish rooms in his house in Delft they clearly show the exact home furniture and decorations in many preparations and they normally portray the exact same men and women, typically women.”

About 36 of his paintings exist and are among the the most revered treasures now discovered, in the world’s finest museums.

Well-known Paintings contain:

*Check out of Delft (1661)

*Female With a Pearl Earring (1665)

*The Milk Maid (1658)

*The Minor Road (1658)

Frans Hals (1582 – 1666)

Frans Hals the Elder was a Baroque painter who is best regarded for his portraits of rich citizens and massive team portraits depicting neighborhood civic guards.

His paintings depict banquets, conferences of officers, guildsmen, area councilmen itinerant players and singers, gentlemen, fishwives, and tavern heroes.

His wedding ceremony portraits present the spouse usually positioned on the still left, and the spouse on the suitable.

The painting of the Laughing Cavalier (1624) is 1 of Hals’s most popular works and the Banquet of the Officers (1616) of the St Adrian Militia Business in 1627 captures each character in a wide range of poses and facial expressions.

Some of his numerous paintigs contain:

*Banquet of the Officers (1616)

*Laughing Cavalier (1624)

*Laughing Boy (1525)

*Officers and Sergeants (1639)

Jan Steen (1626 – 1679)

Jan Havickszoon Steen (1626 – 3 February 1679) was a Dutch painter of the 17th-century whose functions incorporated portraits, historical and Biblical themes, style painting and paintings referencing old Dutch proverbs or literature.

Steen often made use of associates of his spouse and children as models.

Famous Paintings include things like:

*Harpsichord Lesson (1660)

*The Dancing Pair (1663)

*Feast of Saint Nicholas (1665)

*The Content Relatives (1668)

Rachel Ruysch (1664 – 1750)

Rachel Ruysch was a Dutch nonetheless-everyday living painter from the Northern Netherlands who specialized in bouquets.

Her painting job spanned about 6 many years and is the ideal documented female painter of the Dutch Golden Age.

She commenced painting from the age of fifteen right up until she was eighty-a few and died aged eighty-6.

Well-known Paintings by Rachel Ruysch include things like:

*Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies and Other Flowers in an Urn on a Stone Ledge (1688)

*Flowers in a Vase (1699)

*Bouquets in a Glass Vase (1704)

*Flowers Nevertheless Life (1726)

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525 – 1569)

Pieter Bruegel was a Flemish (location of Flanders) artist and printmaker of Dutch Renaissance portray acknowledged for his landscapes and peasant scenes.

He would normally disguise himself as a peasant to show up at nearby festivities these as county fairs and weddings to create his topic make any difference.

Often referred to as “Peasant Bruegel”, to distinguish him from later on painters in his family which involved his son Pieter Brueghel the Youthful (1564-1638).

His paintings depict peasants generally with a landscape history, religious performs this kind of as the Conversion of Paul and The Sermon of St. John the Baptist and religious proverbs which were regular of the Northern Renaissance.

Famed Paintings include things like:

*The Harvesters (1565)

*The Hay Harvest (1565)

*The Peasant Marriage ceremony (1567)

*The Sermon of St. John (1564)

Hendrick Terbrugghen (1588-1629)

Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) was a Dutch painter who was 1 of the followers of Caravaggio (Italian painter of the late 1500s and early 1600s) – the so-called Utrecht Caravaggisti.

His genre scenes provided half-duration figures of drinkers or musicians, spiritual illustrations or photos and team portraits.

Popular paintings involve:

*Bagpipe Player (1624)

*The Singing Lute Player (1624)

*Crucifixion with the Virgin and St John (1625)

*The Denial of St. Peter (1628)

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Rubens is viewed as the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque custom in Europe for the duration of the 17th-century and was also the favourite painter of his great Spanish patron, Philip IV.

All through his life time he developed masterpieces of antiquity from classical and Christian history, mythology, altarpieces, portraits and landscapes.

He was also a prolific designer of cartoons for the Flemish tapestry workshops.

His patrons integrated royalty and churches.

*The Elevation of the Cross (1610)

*Samson and Delilah (1610)

*The Descent from the Cross (1614)

*Self Portrait (1639)